The Union Public Service Commission is popularly known as UPSC. It is a central or main recruiting agency of Government of India.
UPSC is responsible for recruitment of all India services (Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service), Group A and Group B of central service.
Section 96C of Government of India act of 1919 provided for establishment of a UPSC at first. In 1923 British Government established royal commission on the superior civil services in India under the chairmanship of Lord Lee.
In 1924 Lord Lee submitted his report to British Government and on recommendation of Lord Lee British government established public service commission on 1st October 1926 under the chairmanship of Ross Barker.
In the government of India Act 1935, it was called Federal Public Service commission.
The Federal Public Service Commission became the Union Public Service Commission after Independence.
UPSC was given a constitutional status under 315 of the constitution. Article 315 to 323 of the constitution, titled as services under the union and the states, provide for public service commission for the Union and for each state.
• Article-315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
• Article-316. Appointment and term of office of members.
• Article-317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
• Article-318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.
• Article-319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.
• Article-320. Functions of Public Service Commissions.
• Article-321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
• Article-322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
• Article-323. Reports of Public Service Commissions.
The number of members of the commission and conditions of their service are left to be determined by the president. Presently there is 9 members including the chairman.
The chairman and the members of the commission are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.
The constitution provides that as far as may be, at least half members have to be persons who have held office for at least 10 years under the government of India or state government.
A member holds office for a term of 6 years from the date he joins duty or until he / she attains the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.
A member of the commission is not eligible for the same appointment for the second term nor can be undertake employment under the union or state government.
Article 317 provides that the chairman or a member of the commission can be removed from office by the president on the ground of misbehaviour only after the supreme court, on a reference being made to it by the president, has on enquiry recommended such removal.
The office of Union Public Service Commission is located at Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi – 110069. UPSC is a part of central secretariat.
Functions of UPSC
Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission is, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts. The functions of the Commission under Article 320 of the Constitution are:
• Conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union.
• Direct recruitment by selection through interviews.
• Appointment of officers on promotion / deputation / absorption.
• Framing and amendment of Recruitment Rules for various services and posts under the Government.
• Disciplinary cases relating to different Civil Services.
• Advising the Government on any matter referred to the Commission by the President of India.