Uttarakhand lost 3416.2 hect. of forest area due to fires in 4 months.

According to the forest authorities 90% of the wildfire incident this year was triggered due to human activites.

Chilgoza Kinnaur district
  • The Chilgoza pine, a slow-growing trees with an average life of 150-200 years, is the only confier that bears nutritious edible nuts.
  • It is spread from Afghanistan to Northeast India in Indian subcontinent.
India’s forest fires are getting bigger (DTE)
  • A recent report has stated that the probablity of wildfire events similar to Australia 2019-20, Black Summer will, increase by 31-51% in future.
  • SOFR – 22% of forest cover in India falls under highly and extremely fire prone category.
  • IPCC 6th Assessment Report 2021 states that weather condition to wildfire (Hot, dry & windy) has become more frequent in some region & will continue to increase with higher levels of global warming.
  • Forest fires flaring up in unexpected places too, in drying peatlands and on thawing permafrost.
Pyrobhobia :- Desire to suppress the wildfires even the good one.
Types of fire
  1. Ground Fire :  Typically egnite in soil thick with organic matter that can feed the flames, like plant roots.
  2. Crown fire : Burn in the leaves and canopies of trees and shrubs.
  3. Surface fire : Burn in dead or dry vegetable/vegetation that is lying or growing just above the ground.
  4. Ground fire can smolden for a long time – even an entire season until the condition are rigid for them to grow to a surface fire or crown fire.
  5. Still wildfires are essential to the continued survival of some plant species. For e.g. Some tree cons need to be heated before they open & relax their seeds, Chapparal plants. like scrub oak requires fire before seeds germinate.
Fire, Forest & Future a crises
  • Even though forests make up only 10% of total area burned, their higher carbon storage capacity means that they are responsible for 1 quarter of all fire-related to CO2 emission.
  • Fires emit CO2 emission equivalent to European union every year.
Why are forest fires in hills Identify this summer.
  • According to FSI nearly 36% of India’s forests are prone to frequent fires.
  • forest fire season in India Last between Nov. to June. Higher fire incidents are reported in March, April & May due to ample availability of dry biomass (fuel land).
Forests Fires Hotspot in India
  • Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Orisha, Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
Fold rise in intense forest fire
  • Swapping Trend – When traditional flood prone areass become highly drought prone.
  • India Ranked 7th among the countries most impacted by climatic conditions in 2021, According to Global climate Risk Index.
  • The study recorded making forest fires a disaster type under NDMA ( National Disaster Management Authority).
International Day of Forest
  21st, March Theme – Forests and Sustainable production & Consumption.

According to 2021 study of CEEW, climate change has made India & World more conducive for forest fires to spread, whatever be the source because of hot temp., low humidity and increased dry spells.

  • National Action Plan on forest fires (NAPFF) launched in 2018, helps in minimising F.F. by informing, enabling and empowering forest fringe communities & incentivizing them to work with the state forest Department.
  • MODIS (Moderates Resolution Imagine Spectroradiometer) satellite data for detecting active forest fires is also advised. (NASA)
Mains Question :
  1. “Forest fires are changing because we are changing the conditions in which it occurs.” critically evaluate.
Prelims Question :
  1. Consider the following statements-
  2. Swapping trends means when traditional flood prone areas become increasingly drought prone.
  3. Pyrophobia is a term used to define the desire to suppress the wildfires including the good ones.
  4.   Forests Fire prevention & Management Scheme is the only centrally funded programme specifically dedicated to assisting the states in dealing with forest fires.

Choose the correct option

  • (i) & (ii) only                               (b)  (ii) & (iii) Only

(c)  (i) & (iii) only                                       (d) (i), (ii) & (iii)

2. Consider the following statements regarding MODIS –

(i) MODIS is a Earth observing system developed under ISRO.

(ii) It is a system for weather monitoring.

(iii) VIIRs (Visible infrared imaging Radio meter Suite) is more efficient then    MODIS.

Choose the incorrect option.

  • (i) & (ii) only                               (b) (ii) & (iii) only

(c)  (i) & (iii) only                                       (d) None.

Submitted by : Akansha, Rupesh, Tanu & Kashvi

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